Evolutionary Search with Strong Heuristics for Software Product Line Configuration
with Abdel Salam Sayyad, WVU
Software design is a process of trading off competing objectives. In this study, we configure software product lines (expressed as feature models). As we increase the number of objectives, standard optimizers in widespread use (e.g. NSGA-II, SPEA2) perform much worse than IBEA (Indicator-Based Evolutionary Algorithm) since IBEA makes most use of user preferences. Also, IBEA generates far more products with no violations of domain constraints. This research presents two methods for scaling IBEA to very large feature models with many objectives. Our “PUSH” technique forces the evolutionary search to respect certain rules and dependencies defined by the feature models. Also, our “PULL” technique gives higher weight to constraint satisfaction as an optimization objective and thus achieves a higher percentage of fully-compliant configurations within short runtimes. Using IBEA+PUSH+PULL, we can extract valid products in a matter of minutes, even from very large feature models of Linux kernels. Our conclusion is that the methods we apply in search-based software engineering need to be carefully chosen, particularly when studying complex decision spaces with many optimization objectives. As shown here, better and faster optimizers can be built when designers take full advantage of naturally occurring domain constraints.